The Roving Eye

Television Outside Broadcasts History: “The Roving Eye”.
Compiled by Richard Harris. Updated 2020-07-20.

Introduction

This brief history follows the development of the BBC facility providing real-time television pictures from moving vehicles to bring action pictures to viewers.

To view the entire article in PDF format, please follow this link: The Roving Eye.

Mounting of a television camera on the roof of an Outside Broadcast vehicle has been done since the very early days of broadcasting, mainly to gain additional height.

Cameras-on-OB-truck
Photo: Norman Green

Eventually it became a requirement to produce pictures with the vehicle on the move. This needed a mobile power generator, and a radio link as well as the camera and operator.

BBC-Travelling-Eye-caption
Photo: Mike Jordan

Part 1: The Early Years – Monochrome Cameras

1953 The Travelling Eye (Roving Eye I)

Vehicle Registration: NGF 729. BBC Plant No. M729.
Built in the winter of 1953 – 1954, with Marconi Mk IB Image Orthicon Camera.

Bob Matthews remembers: “The construction project was given to the team that became the Experimental Television OB Unit within Designs Dept.

The Unit was based on a Daimler ambulance chassis chosen for its suspension. A Marconi Mk1B camera was mounted in the roof – with the cameraman half in and half out of the van – with a Band V vision link to another vehicle carrying the receiving equipment. Other link(s) were provided for engineering control etc. In order that the vehicle could operate on the move, an air-cooled petrol-engine generator was installed at the rear. This item was provided by Max-Arc Ltd. of Walton-on-Thames, a company specializing in arc-welding equipment for use in countries where water is at a premium. This obviously heavy item was to prove embarrassing when the driver wished to accelerate, as a racehorse gallops at about 40mph in a few seconds from a (nominal) standing start. No commercial-type vehicle can cope with that!

Pictures of RE-1 appeared in the intro film to the “Saturday Night Out” series of programs that went out in the latter 1950s.

In the “Saturday Night Out” opening sequence of 1955-1956 it can be seen that the Marconi Mk IB on the Roving Eye had been replaced with a MkIII camera.

Photo: Mike Jordan
RE1-At-Buckingham-Palace
Photo: Mike Jordan

The Roving Eye at Buckingham Palace in 1954. “On Top” Cameraman Jack Hayward.

REI
Photo: BBC via others
Roving-Eye-Chiswick
Photo: Mike Jordan

The Roving Eye used static as single camera and radio link unit at Chiswick for The Boat Race, 1956.

“On-Top” Cameraman Don McKay (by 1967 he was a supervisor in Manchester):

Roving-Eye-Don-McKay
Photo: Tony Nuttall
Roving-Eye-Don-McKay-closeup.
Photo: Tony Nuttall

The idea of producing pictures on-the-move captured the public’s interest. It was possible to make one’s own Roving Eye, from a Kit!

Weetabix-Workshop
Photo: Mike Jordan

1957 Roving Eye II

Vehicle Registration: SLW 966.
BBC Plant No. K966.
Built in 1957.

RE-1 demonstrated that it was possible to originate broadcast-quality TV from a moving source, and hence approval was given for RE2. The same Designs Dept. team built this larger unit.

Operational use of the Roving Eye I showed that there was a requirement other than producing pictures whilst on-the move, partly to optimise use of equipment.

A complete mobile unit was needed, able to quickly go to site, contribute to a broadcast and then move on.

A petrol engine Karrier Bantam was chosen as the roving vehicle and a similar support vehicle, with 18-inch longer wheelbase and additional generator, was built

Two Marconi Mk IB 3-inch Image Orthicon cameras, lighter than the new Mk III, were carried. The vehicle was fitted with a 42-foot pneumatic mast.

BBC Engineering Monograph No. 12, April 1957 describes1 the unit.

The design was considered a compromise, but the best that could be done at the time.

Below is a still from the 1959 BBC documentary film, “This Is The BBC” made by Richard Cawston. The 65-minute film was premiered before an invited audience on November 12th 1959 at the Odeon, Leicester Square and transmitted on the opening night of Television Centre, Wednesday June 29th 1960, at 7.30pm. It won the British Film Academy’s Oscar for best specialised film.

RE II is seen roving on a public road, covering The Lincolnshire Handicap, from Lincoln:

Roving-Eye-II
Photo: Mike Jordan

Roving Eye II:

REII
Photo: Robin Sutherland
REII
Photo: BBC via others
REII-driver
Photo: BBC via others

The Driver’s Position. A commentator could sit in the passenger seat and view the camera output on the monitor above the driver’s head.

REII-cameraman
Photo: BBC via others

Cameraman’s Position. The camera mounting ring is raised by three motor driven screw jacks. The Band V Vision Radio transmitter can be seen in the background. Nominal frequency 660 MHz.

Interior, looking towards the sound equipment at the rear:

REII-interior-to-rear
Photo: BBC via others
REII-interior-to-front
Photo: BBC via others

Interior, looking forward. The Producer and Sound operator sat on the bench seat with the Vision Engineer between them.

REII-vision-engineer
Photo: BBC via others

The Vision Engineer position. CCU for the camera is in the lower section of the picture and waveform monitor cabinet.

REII-generator
Photo: BBC via others

The rear mounted petrol powered Generator unit in its acoustic insulation box.

RE II at The Grand National in 1960:

Roving-Eye-II-Grand-National
Photo: Unknown
Dinky-Roving-Eye-II
Photo: Unknown

The “Dinky Supertoys” Roving Eye model 968 is one of a set of three BBC vehicles, the others being No. 967 Mobile Control Room (MCR) and No.969 Extending Mast vehicle.

The BBC had 4 MCR’s of this type, No.s 13, 14, 15, 16 each fitted with three Marconi Mk III cameras.

Dinky2
Photo: Mark Evans

1957 RE3 and RE4

Bob Matthews: “It appears that the intention was to have three Roving Eyes in service, and during the construction period of RE2, approval was given for RE3 & RE4, together with Tender vehicles RET1, RET2 & RET3 (RET1 to service RE2). All cameras would be the Marconi Mk1B channels released from MCRs 9 & 10, these Units having been re-equipped with Marconi MkIII cameras.

However, when RE2 entered service, the previous problems with RE1 re-appeared – the vehicle was too heavily laden to meet the necessary acceleration requirements and the remainder of the project was abandoned. This was the only case in my 29 years’ service I heard of a project being cancelled following approval, but by this time all the additional vehicles had been built (on a Commer chassis) and many of the smaller items purchased, so all had to be returned to Equipment Dept. stock, to be bought out for other schemes as they arose.

Consequently, RET1 entered service with RE2. RET2 became Radio Camera (base) Vehicle RCV1 and RET3 became RCV2.

Of the two ‘Eye’ vehicles, one became MCR18 and the other’s allocation is unknown.

RE2 remained in use, with improved suspension, although Transport Dept. was worried about its safety – personnel on board a commercial vehicle carrying weights around its maximum and travelling at speed.

Likewise, Television production was concerned that it couldn’t meet its programme requirements. This especially applied to Manchester, with its Aintree and Haydock Park, et.al. commitments. It was at that stage that Manchester began lobbying for a large estate-type car, which would be fitted-out using existing resources and local effort. Television OB HQ resisted this at first, on financial grounds, but Manchester got its way in the end with the Humber!

1960 Humber Super Snipe, Marconi MK III Camera

Roving Eye II had many uses, but as well as the weight problem it was too high for racing, it obscured the view from the stands. A new vehicle was built, in Manchester.

Humber “Super Snipe” Estate Car, Registration: 256 BLA (BBC Plant No. 256H) fitted with a Marconi Mk III Image Orthicon tube camera.

Humber-Roving-Eye
Photo: Tony Nuttall
Humber-Roving-Eye
Photo: Robin Sutherland (from a BBC recruitment pamphlet)

The Series III Humber Super Snipe Estate was introduced in 1960, distinguished by the twin headlights and wrap around grille.

This picture was used in a BBC recruitmant pamphlet.

Cameraman: Don McKay.

Humber-Roving-Eye
Photo: Tony Nuttall
Humber-Roving-Eye
Photo: Dave Le Breton

The generator towed behind, was based on an Enfield air-cooled motorbike engine, which was reported to be quite noisy.

The Roving Eye was often used as a static single camera unit:

Duke-of-Kent-Wedding
Photo: Mike Jordan

1965 Bedford Roving Eye 5

Bob Matthews:

In 1963, against Tel OB requirements which included MCRs 19-23, we commenced work on RE5.

The bodywork was carried out by Marshall of Cambridge, acknowledging their experience of the other MCRs. One departure from the previous vehicles was the need to operate 405/625; another that the roof-cameraman would sit on the roof rather than through it. The generator went back on board, again increasing the weight, but I cannot remember anything about this vehicle’s acceleration capabilities.

A sound desk was installed, so the unit was for all intents and purposes, a two-camera MCR. I went with it on its first OB, covering the 18th green at the 1965 Open at Royal Birkdale.  I don’t recall any problems there, but we did have a few difficulties!

The new Roving Eye, with Registration No. DJJ 810C, which was built mainly by Robert Matthews and Richard Hipkin, came into use in 1965.

Designated RE-5, it was coach built on a Bedford TK chassis, shortened by about a foot, to give an overall vehicle length of 18ft 8in (5.69M).

It was equipped with two Pye Mk 6 Image Orthicon cameras; one could be mounted on the roof and the other alongside the driver. The Mk 6 was customised for the BBC and used on all 10 of the MCR (Mobile Control Room) vehicles (19-28) in service at that time.

Bob Matthews: “The vehicle was designed to rove, but I doubt if it ever did”.

In 1973 DJJ 810C was stripped and re-built as an experimental Lightweight Production unit known as LMCR. Dave Le Breton was involved in the build.

The design concept is described in BBC Engineering No. 962.  It carried two Fernseh KCR-40 “handheld” colour cameras. A lot of experience was obtained but it was too small and did not carry an effective VTR. 

On 21st August 1975 the cab was badly damaged in a road accident, but the unit was repaired and put back into service.

Wild-West-Show
Photo: Dan Cranefield

DJJ 810C rebuilt as the Experimental LMCR, on location at Kirkstall Road, Leeds. for a series called “The Wild West Show” in January 1975. Dan Cranefield was Vision Supervisor.

Part Two: Colour Cameras

1969 Humber fitted with PC80 Colour Camera

Robin Sutherland was at the Kendal Avenue OB base in 1969: “The Humber had been transferred from Manchester and colourised with a Philips PC 80 camera. I do recall it was grossly overweight and chewed up back axles and half shafts regularly.

Adam Cooper, Pete Thomas and Jimmy Trett fitted the PC80 camera, ready for Aintree.

1971 Citroen DS ELC 514J EMI 2001 Colour Camera

A replacement vehicle was needed and so a new generation of Roving Eye was built. Citroen DS estate car, Registration ELC 514J (1971), fitted with an EMI 2001 camera.

Here it is in 1974, in Frankfurt, for the World Cup:

ELC514J-World-Cup-1974
Photo: Robin Sutherland
ELC514J-World-Cup-1974
Photo: Robin Sutherland

Above: Jimmy Trett, Mike Farmer, Alan Hayward, Lou Lewis.

Left Picture: Drivers, Jimmy Trett and Lou Lewis.
Right Picture: Vision Engineer Mike Farmer, Cameraman Alan Hayward.

Trett-Lewis-Dortmund-1974
Photo: Robin Sutherland
ELC514J-Crew-World-Cup-1974
Photo: Robin Sutherland

1973 Citroen DS VGY 997M EMI 2001

VGY997M
Photo: BBC

Another Citroen DS Safari was introduced, Vehicle Registration: VGY 997M (1973).
This unit is referred to in the BBC Engineering OB Data book3 as CRE-1.
Initially fitted with an EMI 2001.

VGY997M
Photo: Brian Summers

“Maritime Mobile”- The CRE was a versatile unit!

VGY997M-Maritime
Photo: Dave Le Breton
VGY997M-Maritime
Photo: Dave Le Breton

An Ampex VR3000 Quadruplex recorder could be carried on the passenger seat. The small monitor is a BBC design, attributed to Peter Tingey (Tingey’s Tiny Tele):

Ampex-Monitor
Photo: Dave Le Breton

The CRE (Safari) was considered a flexible single camera unit and operational experience influenced the development of lightweight single and two camera units.2

Mike Jordan, Radio Links: “for most of the time it was a designs dept Band V transmitter on usually 849 or 702MHz with the little yagi shown in the Citroen CRE picture. Radio Communications were VHF or UHF “Storno” radio sets.

1978 Citroen DS VGY with 2001 used for Radio Links tests

Tests of a Narrow-band FM system, to reduce interference problems, were carried out at Newbury race course, in 1978, using Safari VGY with 2001 camera4.

1980 Upgrade Citroen DS VGY 997M (CRE-1) Philips LDK-5

In 1980 VGY 997M was updated and fitted with a Philips LDK-5 3 tube camera:

VGY997M-Racing
Photo: Barry Sanford

Regular driver Reg Excel and “On-Top” Cameraman Derek Wright:

VGY997M-Dave Taylor
Photo: BBC

Engineer Mike Farmer at the controls:

VGY997M-Dave Taylor
Photo: Mike Jordan

Hi, my name is Dave Taylor, last man on top, first man inside for the BBC CRE. (Mid-nineties I guess).

The green Citroen rusted away the back door falling off only weeks after it was replaced by the grey one. (K690 EUL) (1992).

Not the best car for the job really, as the much-vaunted suspension was always fully pressurised due to the weight it carried, nonetheless it was exciting whizzing down the back straight at Newbury at nearly 80mph to pick up the horses for their second circuit. Health and Safety where were you?

The roof was strengthened and a level base plate fitted; then the camera mounting was the pivot and seat from the top of a Vinten Falcon Dolly, bolted through the plate to a heavier duty bit of metal beneath. Camera sat on the usual Vinten Mk 3 head.

VGY997M-Racing
Photo: Dave Le Breton

“Inside BBC Television” 19835 features VGY at Aintree races, and also at sea, with Derek Wright aboard, to cover raising The Mary Rose (1982).

The Citroen DS was in production from 1955 to 1975 then replaced by the CX model.

1982 Citroen CX NYN 286Y Philips LDK-5

Citroen NYN 286Y (1982) in BBC Bronze green Livery, with LDK-5 Camera.

NYN way out in the country at Goodwood Racecourse, with grandstand in the far distance:

NYN286Y
Photo: Mike Jordan

“Roving” on grass could present problems. Sometimes the “Going” got soft:

NYN284Y-Stuck
Photo: Mike Jordan

NYN at OB base in Kendal Avenue, an air conditioning unit has been fitted:

NYN286Y
Photo: Brian Summers
NYN286Y
Photo: BBC

David Taylor: “The drivers were a bit of an unsung hero on racing, having to listen to the producer, bloke in the back (or on the roof) look in the mirrors to keep the basic pace right, too far ahead Jockey club (unhappy) for giving the horses a pace to chase, too slow similarly chastised, plus steer the car and avoid the odd punter of even press photographer than would run across to the running rail or jump landing area in front of us.

(An aside): 1990 Citroen Mobile with Ikegami camera

Citroen-London-Marathon
Photo: BBC Archive

This Citroen mobile, whilst not strictly a Roving Eye, was assembled to cover The London Marathon in 1990. The camera is an Ikegami (possibly HL95), on hire from “Cine Video”.

Citroen-Inside
Photo: Unknown

On Sunday 3rd February 1991 BBC Television Outside broadcasts held an Open Day for staff and friends at their Kendal Avenue base. CRE NYN 286Y was an exhibit. Camera Supervisor Ken Moir, wearing the kilt, is talking to Cameraman Nick Roger.

LDK5-Camera
Photo: Robin Sutherland

The camera mounting supporting a Vinten Pan & tilt head.

1992 Citroen CX K690 EUL Philips LDK-5

Such was the demand, more than one CRE became necessary.

NYN 286Y, in Two Tone Grey Livery, but without the air conditioner, at the Kendall Avenue base in 1993 with another CRE behind, Registration K690 EUL (1992).

NYN286Y-K690EUL
Photo: Brian Summers

K690 EUL near a starting gate at Ascot. Derek Reid is driving with cameraman Gerry Ellis on top:

K690EUL-Ascot
Photo: Robin Sutherland

K690 EUL and NYN 286Y at Chepstow Racecourse:

K690EUL
Photo: Harwood Hilly
NYN286Y-Chepstow
Photo: Harwood Hilly
K690-EUL
Photo: Harwood Hilly
NYN286Y-generator
Photo: Harwood Hilly

Developments continued. The link frequency was moved up to 2GHz and the Yagi aerial replaced.

Part Three: Small Cameras and Remote Heads (The Balls)

Citroen CX fitted with Sony Camera

The camera became a Sony BVP 70, in a custom-built box on a lens frame, with a box lens and proper viewfinder. Lenses (Canon) were then interchangeable with a main unit’s stock.

Sony-BVP-70
Photo: David Taylor

David Taylor: “The version I used no longer towed a generator and indeed the camera was a Sony BVP 70 in a custom-built tin box on a lens frame, with a box lens and proper viewfinder.
I did about a year on the roof before the balls came into use. The Citroen was then cobbled up to accommodate an operator position in the rear passenger seat, with various mountings on the roof being tried for the different balls auditioned. This was then replaced by the 4-wheel drive Volvo for a couple of years, before being replaced by the Discovery to give greater lens height and thereby losing the running rail from shot.

K690EUL
Photo: David Taylor

Citroen CX re-fitted with remote heads

Ball-Camera
Photo: David Taylor

David Taylor: “The shot of the ball on the grey one demonstrates the early problems with balls, i.e. they were originally made to go underneath the carrier, until one of the hire companies turned one upside down internally, we only had about 270deg pan range.

Ball-Camera-2
Photo: David Taylor

K690 EUL in car park 3, next to the links truck, at Ascot, June 1996:

Ascot
Photo: Robin Sutherland

1998 Volvo 4×4 S939 SLC

Volvo Registration No. S939 SLC (1998).

S939SLC
Photo: David Taylor

David Taylor: “The other reason for the Volvo, with much more grass roving the Citroen XM didn’t grip, the Volvo being 4X4 just sat down and went. Safety was also a consideration, 4×4 became essential, going into bends at up to 30 mph. The Discovery never felt as safe as the Volvo but Steve Docherty insisted on higher lens height.

The Volvo 4×4 at Royal Ascot in 2004:

S939SLC-Ascot
Photo: Robin Sutherland

Citroen NYN 286Y re-modelled for remote camera head

David Taylor: “NYN has been to the Beeb chop shop to be used as a links test bed, the Balls were all 24v so large batteries were used to power it”.

NYN286Y-Chop-Ball
Photo: David Taylor
NYN286Y-Chop-Ball
Photo: David Taylor
NYN286Y-Chop-Ball
Photo: David Taylor

2004 Land Rover Discovery V8 CRE

Land Rover Discovery in operational mode at Goodwood in 2006.

V8CRE-Goodwood
Photo: David Taylor
V8CRE-David-Taylor
Photo: David Taylor

David Taylor: “It was quite cosy, Last thing you wanted was too much space to go flying around in on a bend.”

Part Four: SIS

BBC Outside Broadcast division was sold to SIS, 1st April 2008.

Discovery roving at Dorney lake near Windsor. It was used for the 2012 Olympics.

V8CRE-Dorney-Lakes
Photo: Robin Sutherland
V8CRE-on-the-road
Photo: Robin Sutherland

The Discovery on the road to somewhere. Notice the SIS cover over the camera.

V8CRE-Ascot
Photo: Robin Sutherland

The Discovery at Ascot in the TV compound.

V8CRE-Ascot
Photo: Robin Sutherland
V8CRE
Photo: David Taylor

Land Rover Discovery, Registration No. V8 CRE. Sold as a private car when OB’s closed.

Postscript: The Citroen VGY 997M known as CRE-1 was sold to a Cameraman, Bob Everitt, after it was de-commissioned from BBC service. It was re-painted a light blue colour.
Robin Southerland remembers travelling many miles in it with him as they were on the same crew and lived quite close.
DVLA records show the vehicle still exists.
The last V5C logbook was issued in June 1991, but the vehicle hasn’t been taxed since December 1991.
Where is it now?

Part Five: The End

For many people the Citroen DS remains the Iconic “Roving Eye”:

Citroen-DS-Model-CRE
Photo: David Taylor

BBC Outside Broadcast base in London at Kendal Avenue was sold in 2007.

BBC Outside Broadcast division was sold to SIS, 1st April 2008.

SIS closed down Outside Broadcast operations in March 2014.

Part Six: New Beginnings

It is planned to re-create CRE1, a Citroen DS, fitted with a Philips LDK-5 camera.

A 1973 Safari vehicle has been obtained. Much of the technical equipment is available.

New-CRE
Photo: Paul Elkington

Thanks

Thanks to:

David Taylor, Mike Jordan, Robin Sutherland, Robert (Bob) Matthews, Dan Cranefield, Dave Le Breton, Brian Summers, Norman Green, Barry Sandford, Tony Nuttall, Harwood Hilly, The BBC, Tech-ops group and others who provided information and the pictures, which remain their copyright.

Dave Hill for proof reading and formatting.

Rev. 11 Compiled July 2020 by Richard Harris.

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References

  1. T. Worswick M.Sc., A.M.I.E.E and G. W. H. Larkby; April 1957; An improved “Roving Eye”; BBC Engineering Division Monograph No. 12; Designs Department, BBC Engineering Division. []
  2. G. D. Cook F.I.E.E. Asst. Chief Engineer, Television Operations; November 1973; “Lightweight Colour Mobile Control Rooms”; BBC Engineering No. 96; BBC Publications; London; ISBN 0 563 12645 0. [] []
  3. BBC Engineering Data Book; Television Outside Broadcasts; Specification and Operational Notes on CRE 1. []
  4. N.H.C Gilchrist B.Sc. C.Eng M.I.E.E; July 1978; “Narrow-Band FM system for Television Links”; BBC Research Department Engineering Division; BBC RD 1978/22 UDC621.397.6 : 621.391.812.7. []
  5. Inside BBC Television, A Year Behind the Camera; 1983. Published by Webb & Bower Ltd. ISBN 0-906671-77-9. []